Friday, December 27, 2019

The Mediterranean: "The Sea in the Middle of the Earth" Still Geostrategically Vital

Two related posts regarding the situation in the Mediterranean are now published they cover or touch on Israel, Gaza, Turkey, Libya, Syria and more at this present time.

The piece below gives us some very good background on the importance of and desire to control the Mediterranean. Have to do with the FACT it is bordered by three continents.  
 Yes, three continents converge on the shores of the Sea in the Middle of the Earth. AND it is resource rich- ripe for exploration.
 Making it a strategically important waterway. If you want to have a basic grasp, historically speaking, which sheds light on the present day jockeying for position in and around the Mediterranean- read below:

Hoover Institute
The Mediterranean Sea is today, as it has always been, a crossroads. The name itself testifies to that, as it means “the sea in the middle of the earth,” a Latin term reflecting an earlier Greek belief. We know better, or do we? From Syria to Libya and on the high seas, and with outside players including China, Iran, Russia, and the United States, the Mediterranean has re-emerged of late as a cockpit of conflict.
In an era of renewed Great Power competition, with a contrast between prosperity to the north and instability and poverty to the south and east, with revisionist powers present and with a clash of ideologies (Western secularism versus radical Islam) in the mix, the Mediterranean’s recent prominence is not surprising. The region was rarely completely at peace in the last century. Indeed, the Mediterranean is only returning to a role it has often played before, and for good reason. The Mediterranean is both a fault line of cultures in conflict and a geostrategic chokepoint.
Three continents meet around the Mediterranean: Africa, Asia, and Europe. Nowhere else on earth are three continents in such close proximity. Furthermore, the Mediterranean offers access to the Atlantic Ocean in the West and the Black Sea in the East, each through narrow waterways.
In the West lies the Strait of Gibraltar between Europe and Africa, while in the East the Hellespont, the Sea of Marmara, and the Bosporus separate Europe and Asia by the thinnest of margins. Ever since the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, the Mediterranean has also been connected to the Indian Ocean via the Red Sea. Even in ancient times, a series of small canals connected the Nile River—and, thereby, the Mediterranean—to the Red Sea, but they were in no way as efficient or as navigable as the Suez Canal.
In historical terms, the Mediterranean has often been the crucible of conflict between East and West. Think, for example, of the battles of Salamis between Greeks and Persians in 480 BC or Cannae between Rome and Carthage in 216 BC or Lepanto between the Ottoman Turks and a Christian alliance in 1571. Since the Middle Ages the Mediterranean has represented an often-shifting border between two great conquering religions, each with a claim to universality, Christianity and Islam.
The Mediterranean is an enclosed sea, about 2.5 million square kilometers in area. Warm and relatively tideless, it is generally navigable, although not without some challenging winds and currents. The ancients avoided sailing the Mediterranean in the winter. Yet they knew that it served as a highway, as a medium of exchange and a path of invasion. Plato’s Socrates put the Mediterranean’s centrality succinctly when he said: “We live around the sea like frogs around a pond” (Plato, Phaedo 109B).
The Romans called the Mediterranean mare nostrum, “our sea,” and with good reason. They were the first people in recorded history to unify the Mediterranean and to govern all the lands surrounding it. The Romans all but wiped out piracy. Under their rule, there was no major naval battle on the Mediterranean between the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the Battle of Cape Bon in 468, with the exception of the Battle of the Hellespont in 324, for 350 to 500 years of peace.
Not only were the Romans the first people to unify the Mediterranean, they were the last. No other empire or hegemon has done the same since, although various powers, from the Arabs to NATO, have predominated in one period or another. That is surely a sign both of the competitors in the Mediterranean and of the challenge facing any one state to defeat all others in the region.
Historically, the Mediterranean has been a crossroads, and it remains so today. Currently the Mediterranean is bordered by 19 separate countries, including two sovereign islands (Cyprus and Malta) as well as Gaza and British territories (in Cyprus and Gibraltar). In another sign of a crossroads: although the Mediterranean comes under the U.S. European Command, it is bordered by countries in CENTCOM (U.S. Central Command) and U.S. Africa Command.
Trade has always been a part of Mediterranean life, from the so-called thalassocracy or “sea domination” of Bronze-Age Minoan Crete, to the reflections of ancient trading patterns in Homer’s Odyssey (the Mycenaean Greeks traded in Sicily and Southern Italy), to the grain fleet that sailed from Egypt to feed imperial Rome, to the Arab, Italian, and Jewish merchants of the Middle Ages, to today’s European Union, in which the states of the southern rim live in very uneasy economic coexistence with the rich northern states like France (itself partly Mediterranean) and Germany. The flip side of trading is piracy and raiding, a recurring phenomenon in the region from the Sea Peoples who threatened empires at the end of the Bronze Age, to the Barbary Pirates of the nineteenth century. For a time in the early twenty-first century, piracy was a problem off the Horn of Africa, threatening shipping that had come through the Suez Canal. An international task force has, in recent years, successfully suppressed the threat.
But there are other, less violent challenges to the economy. The economic success and political stability of the European Union, particularly in northern Europe, make it a migrant magnet. In 2015, a very busy year for migration, over one million arrived in Europe by sea. Others came via the land route. That year Germany alone accepted nearly a million migrants, mostly from Syria. The ensuing political controversy continues to shape German (and European) politics. But migration is nothing new in the Mediterranean. The Late Antique and medieval periods, for example, saw various Germanic, Slavic, and Turkic peoples—some refugees, some conquerors—move into Mediterranean realms.
Since 1945, decolonization—the retreat of empire—has been a major theme of Mediterranean history. Colonization and conquest, however, have been more common motifs in the region over the millennia, beginning with Iron-Age Greek and Phoenician colonies from the Black Sea to Spain’s Atlantic Coast. Then there were the great, conquering empires. Macedon (and its successor states), Carthage, and Rome all carved out territorial empires within the Mediterranean and, in the case of Macedon and Rome, for example, beyond it.
Some of the most impressive Mediterranean conquests, however, were made by outside invaders. In ancient times Assyria and Persia (both in the Achaemenid and Sasanian periods) expanded from southwestern Asia into the Levant and Egypt. In Late Antiquity Germanic peoples, most notably Goths and Vandals, crossed the Rhine and Danube, invaded the Roman Empire, and conquered such Mediterranean lands as Spain, Italy, and North Africa. In the Middle Ages the Arabs advanced from Arabia to conquer the Levant, North Africa, Spain, and Sicily, long governed parts of southern Italy and France, continually attacked Corsica and Sardinia, and even raided the Vatican. In modern times, Italy and France each acquired imperial positions in North Africa and in the Aegean and the Levant.
Hegemonic rather than territorial empires also have played a key role in Mediterranean history, as is only appropriate for a sea. Various states have sought bases to promote maritime trade and project naval power rather than lands to settle. In antiquity there was Athens; in the Middle Ages, Genoa and Venice; in more recent times, Britain’s Royal Navy and the United States and its NATO allies have each dominated the Mediterranean Sea, but not without challenges. In the World Wars, Germany and Italy competed with the Allies for control of the sea. Russia, which has long had Mediterranean ambitions, continues today to project power in the region, most notably in Syria, where it has both an air base and a naval facility. China has recently become a major investor in such places as Greece, Israel, Italy, and Turkey.
Iran represents a different kind of hegemonic power in today’s Mediterranean, working primarily through land forces and aviation rather than by sea. Iran has a strong presence in Syria and Lebanon, over a land bridge through Iraq. Its arc of influence extends eastward to Yemen, and further east into Central Asia. This marks the greatest extent of Iranian power since the Early Byzantine era.
And then there is Turkey. The Mediterranean is NATO’s southern flank and, in Turkey, it also includes NATO’s largest Old-World army. And Turkey is a restless ally under Recep Tayyip Erdogan, full of neo-Ottoman ambitions and eager to expand its influence. Turkey has proven a ripe target for the equally revisionist and immensely shrewd Vladimir Putin, who has successfully revived Russian power. Russia’s sale of its S-400 air defense missile system has put a dent in NATO’s armor, adding to U.S.-Turkish tensions involving the Kurds and Syria. The upshot advances Putin’s ambitions.
While northern and western Europe have been largely spared war since 1945 (with Ukraine a recent exception), the Mediterranean has suffered. Traveling around the basin clockwise, and staying relatively close to the sea, we have: the Yugoslav Wars, the Greek Civil War, the invasion of Cyprus, the Syrian Civil War, the Lebanese Civil War, the various Arab-Israeli wars, the Libyan Civil Wars, the Algerian War of Independence, and the Algerian Civil War.
In ancient times underground resources sometimes proved to be of strategic significance. Athens, for instance, financed the fleet that defeated the Persian Invasion of 480-479 B.C. with silver discovered in the mines south of the city. Carthage paid for Hannibal’s mercenaries with silver from the mines that it had conquered in Iberia.
More recently, large amounts of oil and gas have been discovered in the Eastern Mediterranean. Cyprus, Egypt, Greece, and Israel have established cooperation agreements, but other countries are trying to gain influence over these resources. China, Iran, Russia, and Turkey all want a share, and at least some have launched challenges for control.
The author appears unaware or is most probably being misleading by lumping in Turkey, Russia, China and Iran together presenting as "outsiders" who want a share of resources. Turkey is on the Mediterranean. (It's like reading MoA- misleading)



In one regard, the Mediterranean might become less important, and that has to do with its role as a transportation hub. Today the key to shipping between Europe and East Asia, the Suez Canal in the future might be overshadowed by alternatives. One possibility is a sea-land transport route linking western Europe and South Asia and involving India, Iran, and Russia. Another is an Arctic Ocean shipping route, which may become commercially feasible because of global warming and ice melt. That route is two weeks faster than the current itinerary between East Asia and Europe via the Suez Canal. So, if continued warning makes it feasible, it would mark a genuine change.
Yet that remains to be seen. For the foreseeable future, the Mediterranean will continue to be a restless route of commerce and conflict. Neither Athens nor Rome, Istanbul nor Jerusalem, Cairo nor Madrid might have the power they once did in ages past, but their destiny is not something that London or Berlin can safely ignore, not with Moscow, Teheran, Beijing, and Washington all taking part. The Mediterranean continues to be a central sea.
Barry Strauss teaches history and Classics at Cornell.

9 comments:

  1. P it would make sense to sabotage the arctic route. I would suggest all the cookiness in activity at the two choke points is worth considering. Start at Kursk 20 years ago now and finish with the Russian submersible malarky this year. It is only going to get worse until Russia is gone.

    As for the geostrategic outlook I would suggest that the Med is outscaled in the lethalityspace. However if one has the eye of NoahideCapability ShariaBrown all one needs is game keepers around your garden pond. It does not matter what the abos believe, gretatundberg followers, just so long as they do not poach.

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    1. Hey Incoming!

      Re: the Arctic?

      "Another is an Arctic Ocean shipping route, which may become commercially feasible... Notice he wrote "may"?

      We're not there yet and I still think the earth's going to interfere in the planning and execution of whatever plans have been made.

      Any trade in and through the Arctic and it's potential for success has to do with ice breakers- What Russia has been building gives us a huge clue to the fact there are still mass amounts of ice there AND whatever ways the ice can be melted through the simple alteration of it's top layer by those messing around in the region.

      It's a simple as laying soot or even soil atop the ice.

      But, yah activity is and has been taking place there for a while that is good to keep an eye on. going

      Incoming "However if one has the eye of NoahideCapability ShariaBrown all one needs is game keepers around your garden pond."

      and gamekeepers is what they don't have right now - but Usrael is and has been working on it


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  2. Looks like the ZioAmericans are not taking Turkey's threats seriously. Furthermore, they seem to be getting ready for some increased " activities ". The last option is too unsavory to mention.

    - USAF Is Spending Millions To Upgrade Turkey Bases Amid Turkish Threats To Kick Them Out -

    https://www.thedrive.com/the-war-zone/31622/usaf-is-spending-millions-to-upgrade-turkey-bases-amid-turkish-threats-to-kick-them-out

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    1. thanks for the link Mieszko.. I read it.

      The first thought that popped in my head?

      Is this a surreptitious way to fund Gulen's followers in Turkey- funnel money to them via construction contracts?

      "The Turkish companies now under contract to the Air Force could perform work as mundane as repaving roads and runways, renovating underground piping for water and sewage, and other general infrastructure-related work"

      https://www.ecfr.eu/publications/summary/the_good_the_bad_and_the_gulenists7131


      "The G├╝len movement had both a public and clandestine nature. The public face was made up of schools, foundations, publishing houses, corporations (such as Kaynak Holding, a conglomerate of companies from publishing to construction, and the Feza Media Group, which publishes the Zaman and Today’s Zaman newspapers), and since the 2000s, universities, NGOs, think-tanks, websites, television networks, businessmen’s associations (such as TUSKON), more newspapers, and unions.

      Gulen has a 'construction' racket going in the US as well.. they grease the palms of congresscritters

      I've had more information here previously on Gulen's construction work... Google has censored it well

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  3. Take a look at the virulent anti Erdogan comments on that article. Also about the author: https://www.globalsecurity.org/org/staff/trevithick.htm
    Suffice it to say...he's a MSM go-to and a pro on wars he never had witnessed...(Vietnam) being 30ish something? All in all he's a trained and groomed mouthpiece for the US MIC/MSM/et al.
    He also provides 'Medium' with their propaganda and pro military spending hoorah. I needn't wonder why Erdogan is cutting his ties with the US. After reading some of the comments...his very life is always on the line. I hope the Turkey door doesn't hit the US/NATO in the ass on the way out. VIVA TURKEY! VIVA ERDOGAN!

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    1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DVp_2pkzcps
      USS Nitze Launches Cruise Missiles at Targets in Yemen Oct 16, 2016
      Joseph Trevithick

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    2. Ah, wallflower :)
      I like when you do some digging!!

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    3. Hello,
      I hope that both you and wallflower have had a good Christmas. Thank you for your research.
      Gulen is a creepy Islamist preacher who is attempting to bring the Shariah Law into Turkey. He has followers everywhere; in the media, online spreading propaganda not just against Erdogan but also Turkish people-what kind of 'Turk' would really plot against their own nation and spread such disgusting lies? The Gulenists portray themselves as peaceful Muslims but nothing could be further from the truth-they are CIA assets. Erdogan's opponents also agree that Gulen is way more extreme than Erdogan which makes it ironic that Erdogan is always labelled as an 'Islamist'. I do hope that Erdogan wins because he is the only hope for stability in the world. Visiting Turkey has changed my mind on him because although the majority of people I spoke to were not supporters, they did agree that minorities are more free, economy is better and living standards have improved.
      The Gulenists, through their infiltration in Turkey and the West are spreading false 'facts' about Turkey to manipulate people against Erdogan.
      The Gulenists also own many charter schools in the US where they are accused of many crimes.
      Do not believe any of the propaganda against Turkey because this country has been accepting millions of Kurdish refugees since the 1980s and there are many Georgian/Armenian immigrants in the country all living peacefully with Turks. Why are Kurds, Georgians, and Armenians immigrating to a country that is supposedly so hostile against Kurds and Christians? I asked many Turks about Armenians and they said they live peacefully and some said that they had Armenian friends too-however, almost all Turks do not accept the term 'Armenian genocide' because it is a Jewish lie! I saw a gigantic Turkish flag and Ataturk image on an orthodox church in Istanbul and outside were giant posters with quotes of Ataturk on them.
      I hope to see the end of NATO/Israel. Have a good new year!

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    4. Hi Ally!
      wondered how you were? And hoped you'd enjoyed your Christmas?

      "The Gulenists also own many charter schools in the US where they are accused of many crimes."

      I've come across information regarding the Gulen charter schools in the US.. and problematic doesn't even begin to cover the activities there. Then the schools in the ME region appear to give cover very dark indoctrination..

      And yes, I've read some of the Gulenist propaganda and then the reality of their activities..

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